Myopia and Hypermetropia are optical disorders mainly affecting long distance vision. Myopia, or near-sightedness or short-sightedness, simply means that the image is formed in front of the retina instead of on the retina, therefore the person has a blurred vision without the help of corrective glasses.
Hypermetropia, or far-sightedness, is the opposite of the Myopia. The image which should be formed on the retina without any effort is now formed in the back of the retina. The hypermetropic person can put back the image on the retina at the expense of a great fatigue and even headaches, especially when she or he reads or works on a computer for a long period of time.
Astigmatism is a defect of the cornea. In this case, the eye is not perfectly round, but rather has the form of a football, and needs a corrective action on the retina.
Presbyopia is a normal consequence of ageing process of the eye. Starting from 40 years old, as crystalline lens elasticity diminishes, we start having difficulties reading small letters. We then need to wear progressive lenses that take into account all the levels of our vision (from far, intermediary and from close).